The Culture of International Relations
In this project I aim to use the cultural treaties entered into by the major European powers as a historical source with which to explore the emergence of a global concept of culture in the twentieth century. Specifically, the project will investigate the hypothesis that this concept, in contrast to earlier ideas of civilization, played a key role in the consolidation of the post-World War II international order.
The project examines the bilateral and multilateral cultural treaties of the Western European powers (Britain, France, Germany, and Italy) from 1919, when the first such agreements were signed, to 1968, by which time such treaties regulated a fully global network of cultural relations. I approach these treaties as sources for the history of ideas, and as a data set, using computer-assisted quantitative analysis to analyze and visualize how these treaties contributed to the spread of cultural concepts and to the development of transnational cultural networks.
Research on this project is supported by a grant from the Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences. I have conducted a preliminary methodological exploration, "Computer-Assisted Research on Cultural Treaties," available here.
Nazi-fascist legal internationalism? The Internationale Rechtskammer, 1939-1944
In the interwar history of the discipline of international law, the Nazi period was apparently nothing more than what the historian Martti Koskenniemi calls a “dark gap.” But the same cannot be said about international organizing in the law under Hitler. After reaching out to like-minded foreign jurists throughout the 1930s, Nazi jurists created an international legal institution—the International Law Chamber (Internationale Rechtskammer)—explicitly opposed to the liberal and universalist premises of international law.
While ample attention has been devoted to National Socialism’s rejection of legal internationalism (above all in the scholarship on Carl Schmitt), little is known about the ways the Nazi regime sought to give such ideas concrete institutional form. The Germans’ close partners in this project were the Italians, who cooperated in the legal field with their German allies even as they pursued a position of international hegemony in the legal field for Mussolini's Italy.
I am currently preparing an article on this subject, in which I argue that the Nazi and fascist legal-intellectual networks mobilized foreign intellectuals and served Nazi-fascist hegemony by articulating a regional-European and anti-liberal vision of global order.
International Venice: Showroom of Fascist Modernity, 1930-1945
This project explores the role that Venice—as city and as symbol—played in the international cultural politics of fascist Italy. Fascist officials brought foreign guests to Venice for a range of international intellectual and arts-related conferences and events from the 1920s to the 1940s. The fascists used Venice as a stage for the international presentation of the regime, deploying the city’s beauty and symbolism to enhance the legitimacy and prestige of fascist Italy in the eyes of foreign elites. Italian fascists used international conferences to establish Venice as a nodal point in emerging modern networks of cultural production and exchange.
Internationalizing Venice in this way supported fascist Italy’s claim to a leading position in the transnational networks in the arts and letters that were becoming such a decisive feature of European cultural life. As a result of these efforts, Venice entered a new, dramatic phase in its long history as a site of cosmopolitan tourism and transnational commerce. It now became an “international city” in a new and distinctively twentieth-century sense, with lasting effects on some of the city’s most distinctive cultural institutions.
Research on this project is supported by a grant from the Gladys Krieble Delmas Foundation.
Cultural Mechanisms of Inclusion and Exclusion in Contemporary Europe (CMIECE)
Ben Martin is a founding member of the U4 Research Network on "Cultural Mechanisms of Inclusion and Exclusion in Contemporary Europe" (CMIECE). Together with colleagues at Groningen University, Göttingen University, and Ghent University, Martin co-organized a kick-off conference at Göttingen in November 2015 in order to examine the ways "Europe" – as idea, as cultural point of reference, and as political concept – functions as a just such a conceptual mechanism of inclusion and exclusion.